Philosophy of Logic

The Nature of Logic

The Necessity of Logic

The Affirmative Principles of  Logic

Logic and Language

Logic and Science

Logic and Intuition

Sensational Logic and Logic Based on Reality



Nominal Definitions

Real Definitions (Essential Definitions, Definitions by description, Functional Definitions)


Direct Reasoning

Contradiction in propositions

Even Conversion (Conversio Simpler)

Conversion by Contradiction (Contraposition-Conversion per Contrapositionem)


Indirect Reasoning

Categorical Syllogism

Exceptive Syllogism (Conjunctive, Disjunctive)

Compound Syllogism

Syllogism per Impossible

Induction (Summative Induction, Incomplete Induction, Causal Induction)

Demonstrative Allegories


Argument[= Demonstration]

A Priori  Argument (Demonstration from Cause to Effect)

 A Posteriori Argument (Absolute and Proof)

The Principle of Essences of Causes and the Principle of No- Cause

Demonstration and Theosophy

Demonstration and Polemics



The Best Polemics

Methods of Debate


Fallacy (Paralogism)

 Material Fallacies

Formal Fallacies

External Fallacies


Poetry and Rhetoric

Theosophy and Poetry

Rhetoric and Admonishment


Modern Logic

The Language of Logic

Universe of Discourse

 Review and Criticism of the Aristotelian Logic